Simple Past (Past Indefinite) ժամանակաձևի կազմությունը
Անգլերենի բայերը լինում են կանոնավոր և անկանոն:
Կանոնավոր բայերի վրա ավելանում է ed վերջավորությունը:
I work every day. I worked yesterday.
She plays basket-ball every Sunday. She played basket-ball last Sunday
Եթե բայը վերջանում է y տառով, որին նախորդում է բաղաձայն, ապա` study – studied, copy – copied: Եթե բայը վերջանում է y տառով, որին նախորդում է ձայնավոր, ապա՝ play – played, stay – stayed
I study Armenian Literature. I studied Armenian Literature last year.
Բոլոր դեմքերի հետ նույն կազմությունն է:
I (you, he, she, we, you, they, Aram, the men) worked until 7 pm yesterday.
Did (you, he, she, we, you, they, Aram, the men,) work until 7 pm yesterday?
I (you, he, she, we, you, they, Aram, the men,) didn’t work until 7 pm yesterday.
The students asked questions to the teacher yesterday.
Did the students ask questions to the teacher yesterday?
Who asked questions to the teacher yesterday?
What did the students do yesterday?
What did the students ask to the teacher yesterday?
When did the students ask questions to the teacher?
Did the students ask questions to the teacher or the principal?
Did the students ask questions to the teacher yesterday or two days ago?
The students asked questions to the teacher yesterday, didn’t they?
«Be – լինել» բայը անկանոն է: Անցյալի ձևերն են ՝
He, she, it, Aram, –was
We, you, they – were
I was in Tsaghkadzor last summer. Ես Ծաղկաձորում էի անցյալ ամռանը:
Ահա ամենահաճախ հանդիպող կանոնավոր բայերը՝ copy – պատճենել, copy out – դուրս գրել, study – սովորել, ուսումնասիրել, want – ուզենալ, inform – տեղեկացնել, work – աշխատել, stay – մնալ, live – ապրել, like – հավանել, դուրը գալ, love – սիրել, walk – քայլել, smoke – ծխել, change – փոխել, translate – թարգմանել, try – փորձել, try on – հագուստը փորձել, talk – զրուցել, stop – դադարել, դադարեցնել, continue – շարունակել, ask – հարցնել, show – ցույց տալ, enter – մտնել ներս, մուտքագրել, open – բացել, close – փակել, hand – հանձնել, call – զանգել, կանչել, press – սեղմել, ճնշել, comb – սանրել, agree – համաձայնվել, disagree – չհամաձայնվել, arrive – ժամանել
Ահա անցյալ ժամանակով մի տեքստ, որտեղ գործածված են կանոնավոր բայեր:
Last Sunday evening I was very tired. I stayed at home all day long. I copied the new text and copied out the new words. Then I studied all the new words. At 1 o’clock I wanted to go out but my friend called me and informed me that he wanted to come to my place. He wanted to work with me. We worked together for 5 hours. We translated 3 texts from English into Armenian. He stayed at my place until 6 pm. I didn’t like it. I wanted to have a rest. Then at 6 o’clock he asked me to go out with him. I agreed. We walked in the streets. Then he wanted to go to a store to buy clothes. We entered a store. At the men’s clothes department he tried on two shirts and jeans. The jeans were loose on him and he asked the salesgirl to give him a size smaller. He tried on the jeans but this time they were tight on him. Finally he didn’t buy anything. When I arrived home it was already 9 pm. It was time to watch the news on TV but I was hungry. I opened the fridge and closed it. There was nothing to eat. It was time to go to bed.
How did you feel last Sunday evening?
Why were you tired?
What did you do?
Did you copy out the whole text?
What did you study?
What did you want to do at 1 o’clock?
Who called (telephoned) you?
What did your friend inform you?
How long did you work together?
Why didn’t you like it?
What did he ask you to do at 6 o’clock?
Where did you go?
What clothes did he try on?
Did the Jeans fit him?
Did he buy anything?
What time was it when you arrived home?
Did you eat anything?
Անկանոն բայերը կազմում են իրենց անցյալի ձևերը յուրովի:
Go –գնալ went գնացի,
Come գալ came
See տեսնել saw
Give տալ gave
Take վերցնել took
Bring բերել brought
Buy գնել bought
Hear լսել heard
Put դնել put
Read կարդալ read
Write գրել wrote
Sing երգել sang
Swim լողալ –swam
Run վազել ran
Think մտածել, կարծել thought
Sit նստել sat
Wake up արթնանալ woke
Ահա մի տեքստ, որտեղ գարծածված են անկանոն բայերի անցյալի ձևերը:
I woke up at 7 am. I went to the window and looked out. It was raining. I washed my hands and face and had breakfast. I put on my clothes and took one of my umbrellas but I saw that it was broken. We had five umbrellas at home. I took another umbrella. It was broken too. All my five umbrellas were broken. I decided to take all my five umbrellas to the umbrella maker. So I took all the five umbrellas and went out. I went to the umbrella maker’s shop.
I gave the five umbrellas to the umbrella maker and said, ″I will come for my umbrellas after my work at 6 o’clock.″ Then I went to the office to work. I worked until 1 o’clock. It was time to have lunch, and so I went to the cafe. I sat down at a table and ordered my lunch. When I was having my lunch a young and beautiful woman came up to my table and said, ″May I sit at your table?″ ″Of course, you may.″ I was happy to have lunch with such a beautiful lady. She put her umbrella on a vacant chair and sat down at my table. I wanted to speak to her but I didn’t know what to say. Then I said, ″What nasty weather we are having today!″ ″Bernard Shaw once said that when people don’t know what to speak about, they speak about weather.″ ″Oh, yes, of course. Do you like rainy weather?″ ″No, I don’t like rainy weather. I like my lunch and I want to eat it without speaking.″ ″What a strict woman she is!″, I thought. I finished my lunch, stood up, took the umbrella off the chair, said good-bye to her and wanted to leave. At that moment I heard her voice, ″But it is my umbrella.″ ″Oh, I am sorry. I took your umbrella by mistake. Sometimes I am so absent-minded.″ Then I left the cafe. I went to the office and worked until 6 o’clock. At 6 o’clock I stopped working, put on my jacket and went to the umbrella maker’s shop. I took all my 5 umbrellas and went to the bus stop. I got on the bus, took a vacant seat, put all the 5 umbrellas on my knees and began to play a computer game with my smartphone. Suddenly I heard a woman’s voice which seemed familiar to me, ″Not a bad day for you.″ ″I looked up and saw the same lady from the cafe.″ She was looking at my 5 umbrellas and smiling. She thought I was a thief specialized on umbrellas.
Հարցեր տվեք տեքստի վերաբերյալ: Երբ did-ով հարց են կազմում, բայի ներկայի ձևն է գործածվում:
Օրինակ՝ When did you wake up?
Where did you go?